TO ALL YOUNG BATAK SHOULD LEARN ALL THIS DOCUMENT .ITS “INDONESIA HISTORY BACK GROUND”

http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:R6by5i_SZOL_cM:http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/indonesia_rel_2002.jpgU.S. Department of State
Background Notes: Indonesia, November 1997

Released by the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs.

Official Name: Republic of Indonesia

PROFILE

Geography

Area: 2 million sq. km. (736,000 sq. mi), about three times the size of
Texas; maritime area: 7,900,000 sq. km.
Cities: Capital–Jakarta (est. 8.8 million). Other cities–Surabaya 3.0
million, Medan 2.5 million, Bandung 2.5 million plus an additional 3
million in the surrounding area
Terrain: More than 17,000 islands but only 1,000 permanently settled.
Large islands consist of coastal plains with mountainous interiors.
Climate: Equatorial but cooler in the highlands.

People

Nationality: Noun and adjective–Indonesian(s).
Population: 206.6 million.
Annual growth rate: 1.5%.
Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal
Malays 7.5%, others 26%.
Religions: Islam 87%, Protestant 6%, Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist
and other 1%.
Languages: Indonesian (official), local languages, the most important
of which is Javanese.
Education: Years compulsory–9. Enrollment–92% of eligible primary
school-age children. Literacy–85%.
Health: Infant mortality rate–63/1000 live births. Life expectancy at
birth–men 60 years, women 64 years
Work force: 71 million. Agriculture–50.1.5%, trade and restaurants–
15.0, public services–13.7%, manufacturing–11.6%.

Government
Type: Independent republic.
Independence: August 17, 1945 proclaimed.
Constitution: 1945. Embodies five principals of the state philosophy,
called Pancasila, namely monotheism, humanitarianism, national unity,
representative democracy by consensus, and social justice.
Branches of Government: Executive–president (head of government and
chief of state) chosen for a 5-year term by the 1,000-member People’s
Consultative Assembly. Legislature–500-member House of Representatives
elected for a 5-year term. Judicial–Supreme Court.

Economy (1995)
GDP: $197.8 billion.
Annual growth rate: 7.5%.
Per capita income: $1,013.
Natural resources (8.4% of GDP): Oil and gas, bauxite, silver, tin,
copper, gold, coal.
Agriculture (17.2% of GDP): Products–timber, rubber, rice, palm oil,
coffee. Land–17% cultivated.
Manufacturing (24.3% of GDP): Garments, footwear, electronic goods,
furniture, paper products.
Trade: Exports–$45.4 billion including oil, natural gas, plywood,
manufactured goods. Major markets–Japan, Singapore, Taiwan. Korea,
U.S.Imports: $33.8 billion including food, chemicals, capital goods,
consumer goods. Major suppliers–Japan, U.S., Thailand.

PEOPLE

Indonesia’s 206 million people make it the world’s fourth-most populous
nation. The island of Java is one of the most densely populated areas
in the world, with more than 107 million people living in an area the
size of New York State.

Indonesia includes numerous related but distinct cultural and linguistic
groups, many of which are ethnically Malay. Since independence,
Indonesian (the national language, a form of Malay) has spread
throughout the archipelago and has become the language of all written
communication, education, government, and business. Many local
languages are still important in many areas, however. English is the
most widely spoken foreign language.

Education is free and compulsory for children between ages 6 and 12.
Although about 92% of eligible children are enrolled in primary school,
a much smaller percentage attend full time. About 44% of secondary
school-age children attend junior high school, and some others of this
age group attend vocational schools.
Constitutional guarantees of religious freedom apply to the five
religions recognized by the state, namely Islam (87%), Protestantism
(6%), Catholicism (3%), Buddhism (2%), and Hinduism (1%). In some
remote areas, animism is still practiced.

HISTORY

By the time of the Renaissance, the islands of Java and Sumatra had
already enjoyed a 1,000-year heritage of advanced civilization spanning
two major empires. During the 7th-14th centuries, the Buddhist kingdom
of Srivijaya flourished on Sumatra. At its peak, the Srivijaya Empire
reached as far as West Java and the Malay Peninsula. Also by the 14th
century, the Hindu Kingdom of Majapahit had risen in eastern Java.
Gadjah Mada, the empire’s chief minister from 1331 to 1364, succeeded in
gaining allegiance from most of what is now modern Indonesia and much of
the Malay archipelago as well. Legacies from Gadjah Mada’s time include
a codification of law and an epic poem.

Islam arrived in Indonesia sometime during the 12th century and, through
assimilation, supplanted Hinduism by the end of the 16th century in Java
and Sumatra. Bali, however, remains overwhelmingly Hindu. In the
eastern archipelago, both Christian and Islamic proselytizing took place
in the 16th and 17th centuries and, currently, there are large
communities of both religions on these islands.

Beginning in 1602, the Dutch slowly established themselves as rulers of
present-day Indonesia, exploiting the weakness of the small kingdoms
that had replaced that of Majapahit . The only exception was East Timor
which remained under Portugal until 1975. During 300 years of Dutch
rule, the Dutch developed the Netherlands East Indies into one of the
world’s richest colonial possessions.

During the first decade of this century, an Indonesian independence
movement began and expanded rapidly, particularly between the two World
Wars. Its leaders came from a small group of young professionals and
students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands. Many,
including Indonesia’s first president, Sukarno, were imprisoned for
political activities.

The Japanese occupied Indonesia for 3 years during World War II and, for
their own purposes, encouraged the nationalist movement. Many
Indonesians took up positions in the civil administration which had been
closed to all but token rulers under the Dutch. On August 17, 1945, 3
days after the Japanese surrender to the Allies, a small group of
Indonesians, led by Sukarno — the country’s first truly national figure
and first president (1945-1967) — proclaimed independence and
established the Republic of Indonesia. Dutch efforts to reestablish
complete control met strong resistance. After 4 years of warfare and
negotiations, the Dutch transferred sovereignty to a federal Indonesian
Government. In 1950, Indonesia became the 60th member of the United
Nations.

Shortly after hostilities with the Dutch ended in 1949, Indonesia
adopted a new constitution providing for a parliamentary system of
government in which the executive was chosen by and made responsible to
parliament. Parliament was divided among many political parties before
and after the country’s first nationwide election in 1955, and stable
governmental coalitions were difficult to achieve.

At the time of independence, the Dutch retained control over the western
half of New Guinea, known as Irian Jaya. Negotiations with the Dutch on
the incorporation of West Irian into Indonesia failed, and armed clashes
broke out between Indonesian and Dutch troops in 1961. In August 1962,
the two sides reached an agreement, and Indonesia assumed administrative
responsibility for Irian Jaya on May 1, 1963. An Act of Free Choice,
held in Irian Jaya under UN supervision in 1969, confirmed the transfer
of sovereignty to Indonesia.

From 1524 to 1975, East Timor was a Portuguese colony on the island of
Timor, separated from Australia’s north coast by the Timor Sea. As a
result of political events in Portugal, Portuguese authorities abruptly
withdrew from Timor in 1975, exacerbating power struggles among several
Timorese political factions. An avowedly Marxist faction called
“Fretilin” achieved military superiority. Fretilin’s ascent in an area
contiguous to Indonesian territory alarmed the Indonesian Government,
which regarded it as a threatening movement. Following appeals from
some of Fretilin’s Timorese opponents, Indonesian military forces
intervened in East Timor and overcame Fretilin’s regular forces in 1975-
1976. Small-scale guerrilla activity persists to the present.
Indonesia declared East Timor its 27th province in 1976.

Unsuccessful rebellions on Sumatra, Sulawesi, and other islands
beginning in 1958 plus a long succession of short-lived national
governments weakened the parliamentary system. Consequently, in 1959,
when President Sukarno revived the 1945 constitution, which gave broad
presidential powers, he met little resistance.

From 1956 to 1965, President Sukarno imposed an authoritarian regime
under the label of “Guided Democracy.” He also moved Indonesia’s
foreign policy toward nonalignment. Advocated by the leaders of other
former colonies, these nonaligned countries became known as the Non-
Aligned Movement. President Sukarno closely worked with Asian communist
states and increasingly tilted toward the Indonesian Communist Party
(PKI) in domestic affairs.

By 1965, the PKI controlled many of the mass organizations that Sukarno
had established to mobilize support for his regime and, with Sukarno’s
acquiescence, embarked on a campaign to establish a “fifth armed force”
by arming its supporters. Army leaders resisted this campaign. On
October 1, 1965, PKI sympathizers within the military, including
elements from Sukarno’s palace guards, occupied key locations in Jakarta
and kidnaped and murdered six senior generals.

The army executed the coup plotters within a few days, but unsettled
conditions persisted through 1966. Violence swept throughout Indonesia.
Rightist gangs killed tens of thousands of alleged communists in rural
areas. Estimates of the number of deaths range between 160,000 and
500,000. The violence was especially brutal in Java and Bali. The
emotions and fears of instability created by this crisis persist.

In the aftermath, President Sukarno vainly attempted to restore his
political position and shift the country back to its pre-October 1965
position. Although he remained president, in March 1966, Sukarno had to
transfer key political and military powers to General Soeharto, the
general who rallied the military to defeat the coup attempt. In March
1967, the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) named General Soeharto
acting president. Sukarno ceased to be a political force and lived
quietly until his death in 1970.

President Soeharto proclaimed a “New Order” in Indonesian politics and
dramatically shifted foreign and domestic policies away from the course
set in Sukarno’s final years. The New Order established economic
rehabilitation and development as its primary goals and pursued its
policies through an administrative structure dominated by the military
but with advice from Western-educated economic experts.

In 1968, the MPR formally selected Soeharto to a full 5-year term as
President, and he was reselected to additional 5-year terms in 1973,
1978, 1983, 1988, and 1993. It is likely that he will again be selected
President in March 1998.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Indonesia is a republic based on the 1945 constitution providing for a
limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicial power. The
president, elected for a 5-year term, is the overwhelmingly dominant
government and political figure and is the highest executive office of
the state. He is selected along with the vice president by the MPR.
The president has the authority to conduct the administration of the
government and is accountable only to the MPR. The President appoints a
41-member Cabinet to assist him.

The People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) consists of 1,000 members of
whom 500 are appointed by the president and 500 are members of the House
of People’s Representatives. The assembly selects the president and
vice president and establishes governmental guidelines for the next 5
years.

The House of People’s Representatives (DPR) is a 500-member body that
serves as the legislative arm of the government and is empowered to
approve all statutes and the national budget and to initiate
legislation. Of the 500 members, 425 are elected to office every 5
years and 75 are selected by the president from Indonesia’s armed
forces.

Although nominally independent, the judiciary is strongly influenced by
the executive branch of government.

Although Indonesia is a unitary state, there are 24 provinces, 2 special
territories and 1 capital city district (Jakarta). These are further
divided into 243 districts and 55 municipalities, 16 administrative
municipalities, 35 administrative cities, and 3,841 subdistricts.
Provincial governors are selected by the president.

By law there are only three legal political parties: Golkar, a
federation of groups including civil servants, youth, labor, farmers,
and women; United Development Party (PPP), composed of various Muslim
groups; and the Indonesian Democracy Party (PDI) composed of Christian,
socialist, and nationalist elements. The party system reflects the
Soeharto Government’s determination to shift the political focus from
Indonesia’s deep ethnic, religious, and ideological differences, which
contributed to the collapse of an earlier experiment in parliamentary
democracy. Soeharto’s preferred strategy is authoritarian, program-
based, development-oriented politics.

In elections held in 1997, Golkar received a 74% majority, PPP 24%, and
PDI only 3%. PDI’s poor showing reflected a year long struggle over who
the chairman of the party should be.

The armed forces have shaped and staffed Soeharto’s New Order since it
came to power in the wake of the abortive 1965 uprising. Military
officers, especially from the army, have been key advisers to Soeharto
and have great influence on policy. Under the dual function concept,
military officers serve in the civilian bureaucracy at all government
levels, although there has been a recent tendency to somewhat reduce the
military’s direct involvement in the civilian bureaucracies.

Principal Government Officials

President–Soeharto
Vice President–Try Sutrisno
Minister of Foreign Affairs–Ali Alatas
Ambassador to the United States–Arifin Siregar
Ambassador to the United Nations–Makarim Wibisono

The embassy of Indonesia is at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW.,
Washington, DC 20036 (tel. 202-775-5200-5207; FAX: 202-775-5365).
Consulates General are in New York (5 East 68th Street, New York, NY
10021, tel. 212-879-0600/0615; FAX: 212-570-6206); Los Angeles (3457
Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90010; tel. 213-383-5126; FAX: 213-
487-3971); Houston (10900 Richmond Ave., Houston, TX 77042; tel. 713-
785-1691; FAX: 713-780-9644). Consulates are in San Francisco (1111
Columbus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94133; tel. 415-474-9571; FAX: 415-
441-4320); and Chicago (2 Illinois Center, Suite 1422233 N. Michigan
Avenue, Chicago, IL 60601; tel. 312-938-0101/4; 312-938-0311/0312; FAX:
312-938-3148).

ECONOMY

Indonesia has a free-market economy that is dominated by the private
sector. The government still plays a significant role in the economy,
however, through state-owned firms and the imposition of price controls
in selected industries.

Since President Soeharto took power in 1966, Indonesia’s economy has
grown steadily, from a per capita GNP of $70 to a per capita GNP of
about $900. It is recognized as a newly industrializing economy. Real
GDP growth has averaged 6.7% over the last 5 years. By employing a
restrictive monetary policy and a conservative fiscal stance, the
government has held inflation in the 5%-10% range. With strong export
performance and manageable import growth, Indonesia saw a trade surplus
of about $3 billion in 1995.

Petroleum is one of Indonesia’s major exports. Indonesia endured a
difficult economic period in the early 1980s because of falling oil
prices but has successfully managed to diversify its economy and to
attract manufacturing to create a more stable economic climate.

In the mid-1980s, the government began eliminating regulatory obstacles
to economic activity. These steps primarily have been directed at the
external and financial sectors and were designed to stimulate growth in
non-oil exports and revenues and to strip away import substitution
barriers. The May 1994 and May 1995 deregulation packages helped level
the playing field for competition. The January 1996 package helped cut
tariffs. The most important, unfinished deregulation steps are removal
of nontariff barriers and associated domestic regulations reducing
tariff protection on vehicles, the opening up of the strategic
industries, and the removal of domestic subsidies and export
restrictions.

In late 1997, Indonesia concluded a 3-year stabilization/structural
adjustment program with the international financial institutions. Under
this program the rupiah will be stabilized in foreign exchange markets
by the government adopting tight fiscal and monetary policies. Non-
viable banks will be closed, and a broad range of structural reforms
will be implemented including liberalization of foreign trade and
investment; dismantling of domesic monopolies, allowing greater private
sector participation in provision of infrastructure; and expanding the
privatization program.

Indonesia’s foreign debt at the end of 1995 was about $95 billion of
which approximately $65 billion was official. Most of the government’s
foreign debt is medium to long term, predominantly on concessional terms
from multilateral and bilateral donors.

Oil and Minerals Sector

The oil and gas sector, including refining, constitutes about 10% of
GDP. Although the sector’s share of export earnings and government
revenue has dropped to about 10%, it remains an important part of the
economy. Many U.S. companies participate. Crude and condensate output
averaged 1.6 million barrels per day (bpd) in 1995. With domestic demand
for petroleum fuels expanding, Indonesia will become a net importer of
oil by the next decade unless new reserves are found.

The state owns all oil and mineral rights. Foreign firms participate
through production sharing and work contracts. Contractors are required
to finance all exploration, production, and development costs in their
contract areas; they are entitled to recover operating, exploration, and
development costs out of the oil and gas produced.

Although traditionally known for bauxite, silver, and tin production,
Indonesia is expanding its copper, nickel, gold, and coal output for
export markets. Total coal production reached 41 million tons in 1996,
including exports of 27 million tons. In mid-1993, the Department of
Mines and Energy reopened the coal sector to foreign investment.
Indonesian coal production in the range of 70-80 million tons by the end
of the decade is possible.

Investment

The Indonesian Government actively encourages foreign investment.
Burgeoning infrastructure requirements and the desire to contain the
increase of foreign commercial indebtedness have reinforced that pro-
investment attitude. The value of domestic investments approved by the
BKPM grew 65% in 1995 to a total of $31 billion, while foreign
investment approvals increased five-fold to a total of $40 billion.
Most approved investment during the last 5 years have been in
manufacturing, especially in textile, pulp and paper, and chemical
industries. While the United States is by far the largest participant
in the oil and gas sector, Japan has traditionally been the leader in
terms of value of BKPM-approved investment. Japan remains the biggest
foreign investor in Indonesia. Other major foreign investors include
Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and South Korea.

Over the past few years, Indonesia has made numerous changes in its
regulatory framework to improve the business climate and encourage
increased foreign investment. In addition to the deregulation measures
noted earlier, the recent passage of intellectual property protection
laws and a movement to privatize previously restricted sectors such as
road, electric power, and telecommunications have improved the
investment climate in Indonesia.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Since independence, Indonesia has espoused a “free and active” foreign
policy, seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its
size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major
powers.

Indonesian foreign policy under the “New Order” government of President
Soeharto has moved from the stridently anti-Western, anti-American
posturing which characterized the Sukarno era. Indonesia preserves a
non-aligned position while seeking constructive, responsible relations
with many nations.

A cornerstone of Indonesia’s contemporary foreign policy is its
participation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), of
which it was a founding member in 1967 with Thailand, Malaysia,
Singapore, and the Philippines. Since then, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, and
Burma also have joined ASEAN. While organized to promote common
economic, social, and cultural goals, ASEAN acquired a security
dimension after Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia in 1979; this aspect of
ASEAN expanded with the establishment of the ASEAN Regional Forum in
1994, which comprises 18 countries, including the U.S.

Indonesia was also one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
and has taken moderate positions in its councils. As NAM Chairman in
1992-95, it led NAM positions away from the rhetoric of North-South
confrontation, advocating instead the broadening of North-South
cooperation in the area of development.

Indonesia has the world’s largest Muslim population, but it is a secular
state. It is a member and current chairman of the Organization of the
Islamic Conference (OIC), and while it carefully considers the interests
of Islamic solidarity in its foreign policy decisions, it has been an
influence for moderation in the OIC.

Since 1966, Indonesia has welcomed and maintained close relations
concerning economic assistance with the United States, Western Europe,
Australia, and Japan, from which, through the Intergovernmental Group on
Indonesia (IGGI) and its successor, the Consultative Group on Indonesia
(CGI), it has received substantial foreign economic assistance.
Indonesia has no diplomatic relations with Portugal, due to their
inability to reach agreement over the decolonization and subsequent
Indonesian incorporation of East Timor, but the two countries are
discussing the issue under the auspices of the United Nations.

Indonesia restored diplomatic relations with China in 1989 and, with the
end of the Cold War, has supported efforts to gradually expand a
regional security dialogue under the aegis of the ASEAN Regional Forum
to all Asia-Pacific nations. Indonesia has advocated the eventual
expansion of ASEAN to include all the nations of Southeast Asia.

Indonesia has been a strong supporter of the Asia-Pacific Economic
Cooperation forum (APEC). Largely through the efforts of President
Soeharto, APEC members agreed to implement free trade in the region by
2010 for industrialized economies and 2020 for developing economies at
the 1994 meeting in Bogor, Indonesia.

National Security

Indonesia’s armed forces total about 420,000 members, including the
national police and the traditional services (army, navy, marines, and
air force). The army is by far the largest, with 215,000 active-duty
personnel. Various paramilitary, civil defense, and other auxiliary
units supplement the official armed forces. With defense spending at
1.48% of GDP for 1995-96, Indonesia ranks among those countries that
spend least on their armed forces.

The Indonesian military sees itself as a unifying force among the
various ethnic, religious, and political elements in Indonesia. Thus,
the military views its prime mission as assuring internal security. The
president, vice president, and many members of the cabinet have military
backgrounds. Furthermore, active duty and retired military personnel
occupy a large number of seats in the House of Representatives and the
MPR. Under the government’s dual-function concept, many military
personnel occupy positions in regional government.

Commanders of the various territorial commands also are very influential
in the politics of their respective regions. Local military units can
and do respond quickly with force if necessary.

Indonesia is at peace with its neighbors. The P.R.C. claims in the
South China Sea, where Indonesia has large natural gas reserves, concern
the Indonesians, however. Economic development has taken priority over
the military budget in the Soeharto years. Recently, however, the armed
forces, particularly the navy, have undertaken some small but
significant improvements of their external capabilities.

U.S.-INDONESIAN RELATIONS

The United States has important economic, commercial, and security
interests in Indonesia because of its growing economy and markets and
its strategic location astride a number of key international maritime
straits. Relations between Indonesia and the U.S. are good. The U.S.
played an important role in Indonesian independence in the late 1940s,
and appreciated Indonesia’s role as a staunch anti-communist bulwark
during the Cold War, and maintains cordial and cooperative security
arrangements today, although the two countries are not bound by any
formal security treaties.

The United States and Indonesia share the common goal of maintaining
peace, security, and stability in the region and engaging in a dialogue
on threats to regional security. The United States has welcomed
Indonesia’s contributions to regional security, especially its leading
role in helping restore democracy in Cambodia and in mediating among the
many territorial claimants in the South China Sea. The United States
and Indonesia maintain a modest, fruitful program of military
cooperation which includes military training, ship and aircraft visits,
joint exercises, and mutual visits of ranking military officers.

Friction points in the bilateral political relationship in recent years
have centered on human rights, especially in East Timor, and also on the
rights of workers. The U.S. Congress cut off grant military training
assistance (IMET) to Indonesia in 1992 in response to a November 12,
1991, shooting incident in East Timor involving Indonesian security
forces and peaceful Timorese demonstrators; this restriction was
partially lifted in 1995. The U.S. strongly supports UN efforts to
promote a dialogue between Indonesia and Portugal to resolve their
differences regarding the political status of East Timor.

On worker rights, Indonesia was the target of two 1992 petitions filed
under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) legislation. The
petitions argued that Indonesia did not meet recognized labor standards
of excessive military involvement in legitimate labor activity and
severe restraints on the right of association regarding organizing
unions. A formal GSP review was suspended in February 1994 without
terminating GSP benefits for Indonesia, but an active dialogue continues
on worker rights issues.

Economic Relations With the United States

U.S. exports to Indonesia in 1995 totaled $3.4 billion. The main
exports were construction equipment, machinery, aviation parts, and
agricultural products. U.S. imports from Indonesia totaled $7.4 billion
and consisted mainly of natural rubber and footwear.

Economic assistance to Indonesia is coordinated through the Consultative
Group on Indonesia (CGI), formed in 1989. It includes 19 donor
countries and 13 international organizations and meets annually to
coordinate donor assistance. The July 1997 meetings resulted in pledges
of $5.2 billion. Japan’s contribution of $1.76 billion provided the
largest share of this total. The United States pledged about $92
million for fiscal year 1995.

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has provided
development assistance to Indonesia since 1950. Initial assistance
focused on the most urgent needs of the new republic, including food
aid, infrastructure rehabilitation, health care, and training. After
the 1965 turmoil, during which time U.S. aid was curtailed, USAID
responded to the Indonesian Government’s request to reactivate the
overseas training program, assist in rebuilding infrastructure,
invigorate the fledgling private sector, and help curb the country’s
exploding population growth rate. Through the 1970s, a time of great
economic growth in Indonesia, USAID played a major role in helping the
country achieve self-sufficiency in rice production and in reducing the
birth rate.

By the mid-1980s, a drop in oil prices led Indonesia to undertake far-
reaching economic policy reforms aimed at improving economic efficiency
and reducing dependency on oil revenues. USAID supported this process
with technical and financial assistance. USAID’s current program, which
supports Indonesia’s goal of achieving a per capita income of $1,000 by
the year 2000, focuses on developing a more competitive, participatory
economy, improving health and reducing fertility, reducing the rate of
environmental degradation, and strengthening key institutions which
support citizen’s rights and civic participation. Total U.S. grant and
loan assistance in fiscal year 1996 was $52 million.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials

Ambassador–J. Stapleton Roy
Deputy Chief of Mission–Michael Owens
Political Counselor–Edmund McWilliams Jr.
Economic Counselor–Judith Fergin
Administrative Counselor–Maurice Kralnek
USAID Director–Vivikka Moldrem
Defense Attache–Col. Charles McFetridge
Consul General–William H. Barkell
Public Affairs Officer–Steven J. Monblatt
Agricultural Counselor–Rubin Tilsworth-Rude
Commercial Counselor–Michael Hand

The U.S. Embassy in Indonesia is located at Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan
5, Jakarta (tel. (62-21) 344-2211). U.S. mail to the embassy may be
addressed to APO AP 96520.

The U.S. Consulate General in Surabaya is located at Jalan Dr. Sutomo
33, Surabaya East Java (tel. (62-31) 568-2287). Principal Officer–
William Pierce

For information on economic trends, commercial development, production,
trade regulations, and tariff rates, contact the International Trade
Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC 20230.

TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATION
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advice on food and drinking water safety for regions and countries.
A booklet entitled Health Information for International Travel
(HHS publication number CDC-95-8280) is available from the U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.

Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency
and customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest
to travelers also may be obtained before your departure
from a country’s embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this
country, see “Principal Government Officials” listing
in this publication).

U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling
in dangerous areas are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy
upon arrival in a country (see “Principal U.S. Embassy
Officials” listing in this publication). This may help family
members contact you in case of an emergency.

Further Electronic Information:

Department of State Foreign Affairs Network.
Available on the Internet, DOSFAN provides timely, global access
to official U.S. foreign policy information. Updated daily, DOSFAN
includes Background Notes; Dispatch, the official
magazine of U.S. foreign policy; daily press briefings; Country
Commercial Guides; directories of key officers of foreign
service posts; etc. DOSFAN’s World Wide Web site is at
http://www.state.gov.

U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published
on a semi-annual basis by the U.S. Department of State, USFAC
archives information on the Department of State Foreign Affairs
Network, and includes an array of official foreign policy information
from 1990 to the present. Contact the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh,
PA 15250-7954. To order, call (202) 512-1800 or fax (202) 512-2250.

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